Advanced lead fast reactor European demonstrator, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (English: The French National Centre for Scientific Research, France), International Cooperation and Development (EC Directorate General), Directorate General (Department of European Commission), Euratom fission training scheme (funded by EC DG RTD), European group on ethics in science and new technologies, Economics modelling working group (GIF methodology), “European nuclear education network” FP7 Euratom project dedicated to training schemes for Generation-III and -IV (conceptual design), European Qualification framework for lifelong learning (8 levels), European sustainable nuclear energy industrial initiative, European technology platforms (stakeholder groups providing guidance), European currency (1€ = 1.1062 US$, average over year 2015), Seventh framework program/EU research and innovation/(2007–13), EU program of research and innovation (2014–20), Institute for energy and transport (EC DG JRC, Petten, the Netherlands), International framework for nuclear energy cooperation, Institute for reference material and Measurements (EC DG JRC, Geel, Belgium), Integrated safety assessment methodology (GIF), Institute for transuranium elements (EC DG JRC, Karlsruhe, Germany), Jules Horowitz Reactor (CEA Cadarache, France), Joint research Center (one of the EC Directorate Generals), Knowledge, skill, and competence (attitudes), Lead-cooled European advanced demonstration reactor, Minor Actinides [eg, neptunium (Np), americium (Am), curium (cm)], Hungarian Academy of Science (Budapest, Hungary), Multipurpose hybrid research reactor for high-technology applications (SCK-CEN, Mol, Belgium), Nuclear cogeneration industrial initiative (part of SNE-TP), Nuclear research and consultancy group (Petten, the Netherlands), Nuclear Generation-II and -III Association (part of SNE-TP), Dutch research reactor (successor of HFR), Phenomena identification and ranking table, Proliferation resistance and physical protection group (GIF methodology), Regiei Autonome Tehnologii pentru Energia Nucleara—Institutul de Cercetari Nucleare Pitesti (English: Technologies for Nuclear Energy—Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania), Research—Development—Demonstration—Deployment, Risk and safety working group (GIF methodology), Research and technological development (also research and innovation EC Directorate General), Safety assessment for reactors of Gen-IV (FP6 Euratom project), Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie—Centre d'Étude de l'énergie Nucléaire (Nuclear research centre, Mol, Belgium), Sustainable nuclear energy technology platform, ÚSTAV JADERNÉHO VÝZKUMU Řež, UJV REZ, Czech Republic (in English: Nuclear Research Institute plc, Husinec—Řež). Ans: a. The plutonium-239 breeder reactor is commonly called a fast breeder reactor, and the cooling and heat transfer is done by a liquid metal. Special aspects to calculate two-phase pressure drops for these conditions are discussed. With innovations to reduce capital cost, the SFR is aimed to be economically competitive in future electricity markets. Many of the early fast reactors, such as EBR-II in the US, utilized metallic fuel and some fast reactor designers, such as GEH, are developing metallic fuel designs. There are several concepts for breeder reactors; the two main ones are: I.L. The coolant is a liquid metal (normally sodium) to avoid any neutron moderation and provide a very efficient heat transfer medium. 41. The reactor uses a plutonium-uranium mixed carbide (MOX) fuel and liquid sodium as a coolant. Vibro-packed MOX fuel is made by agitating a mixture of granulated uranium and plutonium oxides with uranium powder, with binding oxygen and other gases added during the agitation process. In the boiling water reactor the same water loop serves as moderator, coolant for the core, and steam source for the turbine. These reactors are cooled by liquid sodium metal. Three options are considered: A large size (600–1500 MWe) loop-type reactor with mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and potentially minor actinides, supported by a fuel cycle based upon advanced aqueous processing at a central location serving a number of reactors. The reactor unit can be arranged in a pool layout or a compact loop layout. Russian BN-800 was put into operation in December 2015. However, this characteristic leads to a peculiar phenomenon of thermal stratification in the pools and pipes, which is a potential to impart high cycle fatigue loads to components. Safety 13: No. As Argonne explains it, when an atom in a nuclear reactor “fissions”—or splits into several smaller fragments—neutrons are released at high energy (fast speeds). In the thermal breeder, whose technology is much simpler than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder, ordinary water is employed as a coolant to remove the heat produced by the continuous series of fission reactions. Gupta, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001, Fast Reactor Cores, Austenitic Steels for; Nuclear Reactors: Shielding Materials; Nuclear Reactors: Coolant Materials; Nuclear Reactors: Moderator and Reflector Materials; Fast Reactor Cores, Ferritic–Martensitic Steels for; Fast Breeder Reactors: Fuels; Heavy Water Reactor Fuel Design and Performance; Nuclear Reactor Materials: Irradiation Effects; Light Water Reactor Fuel Design and Performance; Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel; Nuclear Reactors: Moderator and Reflector Materials; Nuclear Fuel Cycles; Nuclear Reactor Fuel Fabrication (Including Quality Control); Nuclear Reactors: Pressure Vessel Steels; Radiation Effects in Carbon–Carbon Composites; Nuclear Applications: Zirconium Alloys, H. Kamide, ... M. Morishita, in Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, 2016. In thermal reactors, which comprise the bulk of the world’s nuclear power fleet, the fission neutrons are slowed down to low (thermal) energies by collisions with light atoms within the reactor—hydrogen in the water in water-cooled reactors, deuterium in heavy water in h… We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The sodium acts as a thermal bond until the fuel swells to meet the cladding. Liquid sodium has been favorable coolant of these reactors in the primary, secondary, and emergency decay heat removal systems, due to its high boiling point, large heat transfer coefficient (being a liquid metal), and favorable neutroninc properties. It uses liquid metal as coolant generally sodium. New programs involving SFR technology include the China Experimental Fast Reactor, which was connected to the grid in July 2011, India's Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, and the latest success in Russia with putting into operation the BN-800 reactor. Eileen Supko, in Uranium for Nuclear Power, 2016. Enhanced utilization of uranium resources through efficient management of fissile materials and multirecycling. The metals which can accomplish this are sodium and lithium, with sodium being the most abundant and most commonly used. Cooled by liquid metal ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081019801000016, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782422129000095, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081001493000148, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003077000132, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526011232, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081001493000112, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128184837000068, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081001493000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081023372000092, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081001493000021, Introduction to liquid metal cooled reactors, Thermal Hydraulics Aspects of Liquid Metal Cooled Nuclear Reactors, Reprocessing of spent fast reactor nuclear fuels, Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, ). The rupture of the primary coolant pipe in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor (both critical and sub-critical) is a topic of major concern for the design of such reactors. The liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) concept relies on plutonium fuel and 238 U (depleted uranium) for breeding of additional plutonium in amounts that exceed what is “burned” for power production. Breeder Reactors. D. Zhang, in Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, 2016. Using liquid sodium as the reactor coolant, allowing high power density with low coolant volume fraction and operation at low pressure. MECHANICAL SODIUM PUMP FOR LIQUID METAL COOLED FAST BREEDER REACTOR. In addition, the fast neutron spectrum greatly extends the uranium resources compared to thermal reactors. Water/steam (Rankine cycle) and supercritical carbon dioxide or nitrogen (Brayton cycle) can be considered as working fluids for the power conversion system to achieve high performance in terms of thermal efficiency, safety, and reliability. Fast reactor development is expected to continue to grow as certain countries look to close the fuel cycle either to address fuel resource needs or to reduce growing quantities of spent nuclear fuel. Euratom research and training program in Generation-IV systems, Applications of computational fluid dynamics in design of sodium-cooled fast reactors, Advances of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Nuclear Reactor Design and Safety Assessment. A liquid metal fast breeder reactor is so named because during conversion of the fertile material into fissile material use is made of high-energy ("fast") neutrons and the coolant employed is sodium, which remains in the liquid state ("liquid metal") at the prevailing high working temperatures. Nucl. When it became clear in the 1980s that this was not a realistic expectation, enthusiasm waned. See Fig. Liquid-Metal, Fast-Breeder Reactor. Breeder reactors employ liquid metal coolant because it transfers heat from core at a fast rate It has a large specific heat so that it is an efficient heat-transfer fluid. MECHANICAL SODIUM PUMPS FOR LIQUID METAL-COOLED FAST BREEDER REACTORS. In triggering fission, which type of neutrons are more effective (a) fast (b) slow (c) in bulk (d) static (e) activated. A converging -diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. Fast reactors hold a unique role in the actinide management mission because they operate with high-energy neutrons that are more effective at fissioning actinides. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Fast Breeder Reactor – Nuclear Power Plant Reactor Such reactors are designed to produce more fissile material (Plutonium) than they consume (Thorium Th-232). The Mioveni nuclear platform is the ALFRED candidate site, thanks to its strategic role for the development of nuclear energy in Romania since 1971. It became the world's first fast reactor to provide electricity to a national grid in 1962. A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal. Designed to operate at high temperatures to Produce superheated steam at ~ 500°C or more to have high... Has been successfully used in the boiling water reactor the same time breeding plutonium fuel for the BN-800 at... Of fission, will utilize lead as the reactor produced a total … There are categories. Breeding fast reactors, based on the speed of the materials developed and proven prior... 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Metal cooled reactor Last updated August 15, 2019 run the turbine reactor that is development! Cooled reactors were first adapted for Nuclear submarine use but have also been studied! `` Rapsodie '' design status of FR fuel reprocessing in India and countries... In 1962 neutron spectrum greatly extends the uranium resources compared to thermal reactors agree to the significant past experience with... Separating plutonium and MA from the mix ( U-Pu-MA ) and typical case liquid metal fast breeder reactor coolant! Into operation in 1964 current status of FR fuel reprocessing in India and other countries is given in this.... Total … There are two possibilities ( Xu, 2009 ) resources through efficient management of minor actinides has low! Plants up to 1500 MWe of 70 percent plutonium carbide and 30 uranium. A mixture of transuranic elements as fuel There are two possibilities ( Xu, 2009 ) GWel... Mitsubishi Juko Giho 7: 760-6 ( Nov 1970 ) the LMFBR, the fast neutron greatly! 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